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Part 2: How do you use this labeling system?

Part 1 of this three-part series discussed the need for a simplified cannabis labeling system, such that the abundance of data gathered at the testing lab can make sense to everyone in the cannabis ecosystem. The DiscOmic system uses the powerful pattern recognition in the visual part of the human brain to tie together cultivars with similar profiles. Instead of trying to “teach” the brain what every nuanced terpene in the cannabis sample “means”, we allow the brain to draw broad patterns based on self-similarity. Because this can be difficult to visualize, let’s examine a few illustrated labels:

This image shows six different samples that were lab tested for terpenes, and their resulting DiscOmic labels. Note the intuitive nature of recognizing self-similarity makes this system very easy to use. Of the six profiles, two showed noteworthy similarity and have been outlined in blue.Viewing the illustrations, we can see without knowing or attempting to decipher what the colors and layers in the DiscOmic label signify, an exact match, a close match, and can confidently tell when there is not a significant match. This is because DiscOmic was not designed to be used by scientists but everyday cannabis consumers from all walks of life.

Those who can most benefit from this intuitive label system are cannabis consumers and cannabis producers. The consumer has the ability to easily keep a consistent terpene profile in the cannabis they purchase from a dispensary, even as dispensaries routinely run out of certain varieties and replace them with new ones, creating a revolving door menu. Historically, it has been difficult to collect consistent cannabis, especially over many years as harvest seasons and cultivar fashions go through their cycles. With a quantitative, science-based labeling system the consumer can protect themselves from the challenges of shifting supplies in the cannabis industry and identify cannabis that works well for them with ease.

Many of the benefits enjoyed by consumers are also shared by producers. Having a scientifically backed method of demonstrating plant consistency allows a producer to sell their product with more confidence and assure purchasers of the quality and consistency of their product. Producers will also be protected by this labeling system from fraudulent competitors who simply re-name inferior cannabis to match the most fashionable variety of cannabis of the time. This causes dilution of brand name over time, and causes financial losses to the original grower. With science-based labeling, growers and distributors can defend their product from “generic brand” cannabis and protect their plant’s value over time.

The diagram above shows how the DiscOmic label can be used to see individual terpene content by using the color-coded terpene-group system outlined above.In addition to being useful for self-similarity comparisons between cannabis varieties, the DiscOmic label can be read to describe the concentrations of individual terpenes or terpene groups in the cannabis sample. The nature of the groupings came from matching the statistical analysis of cannabis with enzymology and biosynthetic pathways, which is covered in greater detail in a later section.

The groupings follow this basic scheme: The inner layer is myrcene (red) vs. ocimene (blue), the middle layer contains the terpinenes and carene (purple) vs. limonene and linalool (yellow), the outer layer is caryophyllene, humulene, nerolidol (orange) vs. the pinenes (green).

The greater the radius of the ring, the higher the concentration of the terpenes in that group. Using this system, a viewer of the DiscOmic label can tell what major terpenes are present in the cannabis. This can be used for two main predictions about the cannabis product: flavor and medicinal effect. To be able to use the colors of the DiscOmic label to predict the fragrance of a cannabis sample, the “smell and feel” of each color component needs to be understood by the viewer. To help the viewer better understand the scents of the component terpenes, we have included a chart illustrating these compound’s scents.

The above chart outlines the human qualitative sensations of the major terpenes present in cannabis, color-coded with the DiscOmic label scheme. The chart outlines for each terpene the plants that produce that terpene in nature, and a description of the smell of the isolated terpene.

In addition to terpene profilesproviding the flavor and fragrance of cannabis samples, the medical benefits of cannabis are closely tied to its terpene content in many documented instances. At Digamma, we have built a database with 499 peer-reviewed medical science research papers looking at one or more of the components of cannabis in relation to human disease. Using this database, we have generated six tables showing the weighted contribution each terpene, color-coded for DiscOmic group, to treating a set of disorders. This allows software to connect patients with specific disorders to cannabis varieties in inventory at different dispensaries and make recommendations based on data derived from the DiscOmic label. The six tables we have summarized cover the following disorders: cancer, anxiety, depression, pain, insomnia, and infections.

These six tables correlate the major terpenes in cannabis with the number of research studies confirming a connection between the listed terpene and the listed disorder. Terpenes have been color-coded to match their DiscOmic groupings. Lists were derived from datasets of 499 peer-reviewed publications and 958 unique cannabis flower samples analyzed for terpene content.

Below we have provided the number of references that are connected to each terpene by DiscOmic group. For those wishing to take a closer look at the scientific literature on the medical effects of terpenes a chart of the 109 scientific references linked up by terpene group is provided below.

Part 3 of this three-part series will dive deeper regarding how the DiscOmic system works.

 

DiscOmic Group Terpene Number of References
Orange Caryophyllene 28
Humulene 7
Nerolidol 7
Purple D-Terpinene (Terpinolene) 8
Red Myrcene 30
Blue Ocimene 9
Yellow Limonene 44
Linalool 37
Green Pinenes 16

 

No. Reference Orange Purple Red Blue Yellow Green
1 Adam et al. ”Antifungal Activities of Origanumvulgare subsp. hirtum, Menthaspicata, Lavandulaangustifolia, and Salvia fruticosa Essential Oils against Human Pathogenic Fungi” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (1998) terpinenes limonene linalool pinenes
2 Afoulous et al. ”Helichrysumgymnocephalum Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic, Antimalarial and Antioxidant Activities, Attribution of the Activity Origin by Correlations” Molecules (2011) terpinenes pinenes
3 Al Monsouri et al. ”The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice” Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior (2014) caryophyllene
4 Andalib et al. ”SEDATIVE AND HYPNOTIC EFFECTS OF IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL HERBS USED FOR TREATMENT OF INSOMNIA” EXCLI Journal (2011) ocimene
5 Angioni et al. ”Chemical Composition, Seasonal Variability, and Antifungal Activity of Lavandulastoechas L. ssp. stoechas Essential Oils from Stem/Leaves and Flowers” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2006) limonene
6 Aydin et al. ”ANTICANCER AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF TERPINOLENE IN RAT BRAIN CELLS” Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology (2013) terpinenes pinenes
7 Bahi et al. ”-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice” Physiology and Behavior (2014) caryophyllene
8 Bai et al. ”Protective Effect of D-Limonene against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Damage in Human Lens Epithelial Cells via the p38 Pathway” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2016) limonene
9 Barocelli et al. ”Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered LavandulahybridaReverchonbGrossoQ essential oil” Life Sciences (2004) linalool
10 Bento et al. ”-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPAR Pathway” American Journal of Pathology (2011) caryophyllene
11 Blanco et al. ”Neurobehavioral effect of essential oil of Cymbopogoncitratus in mice” Phytomedicine (2009) myrcene
12 Boskabady et al. ”RELAXANT EFFECTS OF OCIMUM BASILICUM ON GUINEA PIG TRACHEAL CHAINS AND ITS POSSIBLE MECHANISM(S)” DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2005) ocimene linalool pinenes
13 Bradley et al. ”Anxiolytic effects of Lavandulaangustifoliaodour on the Mongolian gerbil elevated plus maze” Journal of Enthnopharmacology (2007) myrcene linalool
14 Burstein et al. ”Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids, and Related Analogs in Inflammation” AAPS Journal (2009) caryophyllene
15 Cavanagh et al. ”Biological Activities of Lavender Essential Oil” Phytotherapy Research (2002) ocimene linalool
16 Celik et al. ”Beneficial effects of nerolidol on thioacetamide-induced damage of the reproductive system in male rats” Biomedical Research (2016) nerolidol
17 Cheng et al. ”Neuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica” Journal of Wood Science (2009) myrcene limonene pinenes
18 Costa et al. ”Citrus aurantium L. essential oil exhibits anxiolytic like activity mediated by 5-HT1A-receptors and reduces cholesterol after repeated oral treatment” BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine (2013) myrcene limonene pinenes
19 d’Alessio et al. ”Anti-Stress Effects of d-Limonene and Its Metabolite Perillyl Alcohol” Rejuvenation Research (2014) limonene
20 d’Auria et al. ”Antifungal activity of Lavandulaangustifolia essential oil against Candida albicans yeast and mycelial form” Medical Mycology (2005) linalool
21 Danh et al. ”Comparison of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Lavender (Lavandulaangusifolia L.) Essential Oils Extracted by Supercritical CO2, Hexane and Hydrodistillation” Food and Bioprocess Technology (2012) linalool
22 Das et al. ”Antioxidative effects of the spice cardamom against non-melanoma skin cancer by modulating nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and NF-kB signalling pathways” British Journal of Nutrition (2012) nerolidol terpinenes myrcene limonene linalool pinenes
23 De Martino et al. ”Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial and Mutagenic Activities of Seven Lamiaceae Essential Oils” Molecules (2009) linalool
24 de Rapper et al. ”The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandulaangustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2013) linalool
25 Duran et al. ”SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS HYPERICUM PERFORATUM WITH METHOTREXATE ON HUMAN BREAST CANCERC ELL LINE MCF-7” ICAMS (2016) caryophyllene pinenes
26 El-Alfy et al. ”Nature Against Depression” Current Medicinal Chemistry (2012) linalool
27 Esmaeili-Mahani et al. ”Proapoptotic and Antiproliferative Effects of Thymus caramanicus on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7) and Its Interaction with Anticancer Drug Vincristine” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2014) terpinenes myrcene pinenes
28 Ferreira et al. ”Nerolidol effects on mitochondrial and cellular energetics” Toxicology in Vitro (2012) nerolidol
29 Fine et al. ”The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain” Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal (2013) caryophyllene
30 Gargano et al. ”Essential Oils from Citrus latifolia and Citrus reticulata Reduce Anxiety and Prolong Ether Sleeping Time in Mice” Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology (2008) terpinenes limonene pinenes
31 Gertsch et al. ”Anti-inflammatory cannabinoids in diet” Communicative & Integrative Biology (2008) caryophyllene
32 Ghelardini et al. ”Local anaesthetic activity of -caryophyllene” Il Farmaco (2001) caryophyllene
33 Ghelardini et al. ”Local Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandulaangustifolia” Planta Medica (1999) linalool
34 Guimaraes-Santos et al. ”Copaiba Oil-Resin Treatment Is Neuroprotective and Reduces Neutrophil Recruitment and Microglia Activation after Motor Cortex Excitotoxic Injury” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2012) caryophyllene
35 Guzman-Gutierrez et al. ”Antidepressant activity of Litseaglaucescens essential oil: Identification of b -pinene and linalool as active principles” Journal of Enthnopharmacology (2012) linalool pinenes
36 Hanusova et al. ”The effect of Myrciarubra essential oil and its components a-humulene and trans-nerolidol on adhesion and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells” Cancer Cell and Microenvironment (2015) humulenenerolidol
37 Hatano et al. ”Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research (2012) limonene
38 He et al. ”Gum mastic inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells” Cancer (2006) caryophyllene myrcene pinenes
39 He et al. ”Mechanisms of antiprostate cancer by gum mastic: NF-κB signal as target” ActaPharmacologicaSinica (2007) myrcene
40 Herrera-Ruiz et al. ”Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract from Salvia elegans” Journal of Enthnopharmacology (2006) caryophyllene ocimene linalool
41 Horvath et al. ”caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner” Free Radical Biology and Medicine (2012) caryophyllene
42 Hui et al. ”Chemical composition of lavender essential oil and it santioxidant activity and inhibition against rhinitis-related bacteria” African Journal of Microbiology Research (2010) ocimene
43 Ibrahim et al. ”Insecticidal, repellent, antimicrobial activity and phytotoxicity of essential oils: With special reference to limonene and its suitability for control of insect pests” Agriculture and Food Science in Finland (2001) limonene
44 Jardak et al. ”Chemical composition, anti-biofilm activity and potential cytotoxic effect on cancer cells of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil from Tunisia” Lipids in Health and Disease (2017) caryophyllene terpinenes pinenes
45 Jianu et al. ”Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils of Lavender (Lavandulaangustifolia) and Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) Grown in Western Romania” International Journal of Agriculture & Biology (2013) caryophyllene
46 Johnson et al. ”The effectiveness of nurse-delivered aromatherapy in an acute care setting” Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2016) terpinenes myrcene limonene linalool pinenes
47 Jung et al. ”Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice” Carcinogenesis (2015) caryophyllene
48 Kaefer et al. ”The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (2008) limonene
49 Khakpour et al. ”Effect of Citrus aurantium L. Essential Oil and Haloperidol on Anxiety in Male Mice” World Journal of Neuroscience (2014) nerolidol limonene
50 Khanum et al. ”Anxiety-Herbal Treatment: A Review” Research and Reviews in Biomedicine and Biotechnology (2010) limonene
51 Klauke et al. ”The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain” European Neuropsychopharmacology (2014) caryophyllene
52 Kumar et al. ”AROMA THERAPY IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS (MDD): AN ASSESSMENT” World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (2016) caryophyllene terpinenes myrcene limonene linalool pinenes
53 Kumar et al. ”Hypericumperforatum: Nature’s mood stabilizer” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (2000) caryophyllene humulene myrcene pinenes
54 Lan et al. ”Death receptor 5-mediated TNFR family signaling pathways modulate Á -humulene-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer HT29 cells” Oncology Reports (2011) humulene
55 Legault et al. ”Antitumor Activity of Balsam Fir Oil: Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by α-Humulene as Possible Mechanism of Action” Planta Medica (2003) humulene
56 Lehrner et al. ”Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients” Physiology and Behavior (2000) limonene
57 Lehrner et al. ”Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in dental office” Physiology and Behavior (2005) caryophyllene myrcene ocimene limonene linalool
58 Leite et al. ”Behavioral effects of essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. inhalation in rats” Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy (2008) myrcene limonene
59 Lima et al. ”Anxiolytic-like acitivity and GC-MS analysis of limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants” Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior (2012) limonene
60 Lin et al. ”Extraction of biologically active compounds by hydrodistillation of Boswellia species gum resins for anti cancer therapy” OA Alternative Medicine (2013) caryophyllene humulene
61 Lopes Campelo et al. ”Sedative, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of Citrus limon (Burn) essential oil in mice” Die Pharmazie (2011) limonene linalool
62 Macedo et al. ”Association of terpinolene and diclofenac presents antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory synergistic effects in a model of chronic inflammation” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research (2016) terpinenes pinenes
63 McPartland et al. ”Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts?” (2001) caryophyllene myrcene limonene linalool pinenes
64 Meehan-Atrash et al. ”Toxicant Formation in DabbintL The Terpene Story” ACS Omega (2017) myrcene limonene linalool
65 Mitic-Culafic et al. ”Antigenotoxic potential of plant monoterpenes linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against IQ- and PhIP- induced DNA damage” Botanica Serbica (2016) myrcene linalool
66 Mohd-Shukri et al. ”THE EFFECTS OF NEROLIDOL, ALLICIN AND BERENIL ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF Trypanosoma evansi IN MICE : A COMPARATIVE STUDY USING LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC APPROACHES” Malaysian Applied Biology Journal (2011) nerolidol
67 MoraesPultrini et al. ”Effects of the essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. in experimental anxiety models in mice” Life Sciences (2005) limonene
68 Nakamura et al. ”Stress Repression in Restrained Rats by (R)-(-)-Linalool Inhalation and Gene Expression Profiling of Their Whole Blood Cells” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2009) linalool
69 Navarra et al. ”Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application” Frontiers in Pharmacology (2015) terpinenes limonene linalool pinenes
70 Nissen et al. ”Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.)” Fitoterapia (2010) caryophyllene terpinenes myrcene limonene pinenes
71 Nokhodchi et al. ”The effect of terpene concentrations on the skin penetration of diclofenac sodium” International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2007) nerolidol limonene
72 Novak et al. ”Essential oils of different cultivars of Cannabis sativa L. and their antimicrobial activity” Flavor and Fragrance Journal (2001) caryophyllene terpinenes myrcene limonene pinenes
73 Odeh et al. ”THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS CITRUS AURANTIUM PEELS ON HUMAN COLORECTAL CARCINOMA CELL LINE (LIM1863)” Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences (2012) limonene
74 Okumura et al. ”Terpinolene, a component of herbal sage, downregulates AKT1 expression in K562 cells” Oncology Letters (2011) terpinenes pinenes
75 Peana et al. ”Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils ” Phytomedicine (2002) linalool
76 Peana et al. ”Effects of (!)-linalool in the acute hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, L-glutamate and prostaglandin E2” European Journal of Pharmacology (2004) linalool
77 Peana et al. ”Profile of spinal and supra-spinal antinociception of (-)-linalool” European Journal of Pharmacology (2004) linalool
78 Perrucci et al. ”The Activity of Volatile Compounds from Lavandulaangustifolia Against Psoroptescuniculi” Phytotherapy Research (1996) linalool
79 Perry et al. ”Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders” CNS Drugs (2006) linalool pinenes
80 Pimenta et al. ”Naturally occurring anxiolytic substances from aromatic plants of genus citrus” Journal of Medicinal Plants (2012) myrcene limonene
81 Privitera et al. ”In vitro Anti-Proliferative Effect of Salvia officinalis Essential Oil and its Three Main Components on Human Lung Cancer Cells” American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics (2014) pinenes
82 Radulescu et al. ”CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CANCER CHEMOPREVENTIVE EFFECT OF VOLATILE OIL ISOLATED FROM THYMUS PULEGIOIDES L.” Farmacia (2011) caryophyllene terpinenes myrcene ocimene linalool pinenes
83 Ramadan et al. ”Essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants as antioxidant and novel anticancer agents in human cancer cell lines” Grasas y Aceites (2015) caryophyllene humulene myrcene linalool pinenes
84 Rogerio et al. ”Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpene a-humulene in experimental airways allergic inflammation” British Journal of Pharmacology (2009) humulene
85 Rombola et al. ”Bergamot Essential Oil Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behaviour in Rats” Molecules (2017) limonene linalool
86 Rufino et al. ”Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis” European Journal of Pharmacology (2015) myrcene
87 Russin et al. ”Inhibition of rat mammary carcinogenesis by monoterpenoids” Carcinogenesis (1989) limonene
88 Russo et al. ”Cannabis is more than simply D9-tetrahydrocannabinol” Psychopharmacology (2003) caryophyllene myrcene limonene pinenes
89 Russo et al. ”Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phtyocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects” British Journal of Pharmacology (2011) caryophyllene nerolidol myrcene limonene linalool pinenes
90 Sabry et al. ”GC/MS Analysis and Potential Cytotoxic Activity of Haplophyllumtuberculatum Essential Oils Against Lung and Liver Cancer Cells” Pharmacognosy Journal (2016) terpinenes myrcene pinenes
91 Saketi et al. ”Effect of Citrus aurantium L. Essential Oil and Its Interaction with Fluoxetine on Anxiety in Male Mice” Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (2014) nerolidol limonene
92 Saki et al. ”The effect of most important medicinal plants on two important psychiatric disorders (andxiety and depression) – a review” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2014) linalool
93 Sani et al. ”CYTOTOXIC AND APOPTOGENIC PROPERTIES OF DRACOCEPHALUM KOTSCHYI AERIAL PART DIFFERENT FRACTIONS ON CALU-6 AND MEHR-80 LUNG CANCER CELL LINES” Farmacia (2017) myrcene limonene linalool
94 Sepahvand et al. ”C hemicalcomposition, antioxidant activity and antibacterial effect of essential oil of the aerial parts of S alviasclareoides” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2014) caryophyllene ocimene linalool
95 Silva et al. ”Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylumrhoifolium Lam. leaves” ActaAmazonica (2007) caryophyllene humulene pinenes
96 Souto-Maior et al. ”Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models” Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior (2011) linalool
97 Spyridopoulou et al. ”Dietary mastic oil extracted from Pistacialentiscus var. chia suppresses tumor growth in experimental colon cancer models” Scientific Reports (2017) myrcene pinenes
98 Suhail et al. ”Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells” BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine (2011) myrcene pinenes
99 Taran et al. ”Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ferulagoangulata subsp. carduchorum” Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology (2010) ocimene pinenes
100 Turkez et al. ”Genotoxic and oxidative damage potentials in human lymphocytes after exposure to terpinolene in vitro” Cytotechnology (2015) terpinenes pinenes
101 van Vuuren et al. ”Antimicrobial activity of limonene enantiomers and 1,8-cineole alone and in combination” Flavor and Fragrance Journal (2007) limonene
102 Vaseghi et al. ”Hypnotic Effect of Salvia reuteranaBoiss for Treatment of Insomnia” Journal of Medicinal Plants (2013) ocimene
103 Viana et al. ”Anticonvulsant Activity of Essential Oils and Active Principles from Chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (2000) myrcene limonene
104 Williams et al. ”Terpenes and the Lipid-Protein-Partitioning Theory of Skin Penetration Enhancement” Pharmaceutical Research (1991) limonene pinenes
105 Williams et al. ”The enhancement index concept applied to terpene penetration enhancers for human skin and model lipophilic (oestradiol) and hydrophilic (Sfluorouracil) drugs” International Journal of Pharmaceutics (1991) limonene pinenes
106 Yang et al. ”α-Pinene, a major constituent of pine tree oils, enhances non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice through GABAA-benzodiazepine receptors” Molecular Pharmacology (2016) pinenes
107 Yu et al. ”Lavandulaangustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) linalool
108 Zetola et al. ”CNS activities of liquid and spray-dried extracts from Lippia alba Verbenaceae (Brazilian false melissa)” Journal of Enthnopharmacology (2002) myrcene limonene
109 Zhou et al. ”Anti-depression effect of Chimonanthussalicifolicus essential oil in chronic stressed rats” Journal of Medicinal Plant Research (2014) myrcene limonene linalool

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Marco Troiani and Savino Sguera

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